Today we are going to discuss about Pre- Socratic philosophers view about cosmology Definition. So stay with us if you are interested about this topic. So it can peep in your mind that who are the pre- Socratic philosophers or what is cosmology Definition.
Well, pre- Socratic philosophers were the early Greek philosophers, most of whom were born before Socrates. Their intention was to question about the origin and nature of the physical world. The name of some pre- Socratic Greek philosophers were Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Xenophanes, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Pythagoras and Zeno. And the origin and evolution of the universe are involved with cosmology, which is a branch of astronomy.
Different pre- Socratic philosophers gave different ideas about Cosmology Definition. Some of their ideas are discussed below.
Thales, the first Greek philosophers and the first scientist in the western tradition, considered that water was the one primal kind of existence and every this else in the universe was a modification of water. What do you think is it possible that everything in the universe was made up of water? By the way, he considered the earth as a flat disc which floated on water. According to him, the earth is an island which is surrounded by the river Okeanos.
He believed that all things were water, all came from water and all would return to water. Thales said that both fire and earth arose from water. Seriously? Is it possible that fire is originated from water? Well, he emphasized his idea by saying that earth was the solidified version of water.
The reason behind choosing water as the first principal was moist nature of everything. Animal life is sustained by nature and this is another reason behind Thales’s so choice.
Anaximander was a student of Thales. He is considered as the first true scientist and first Greek Philosophers . He is the first to develop the cosmology Definition. He said that only water or any other element could not embrace all of the opposites found in nature. Because water could be wet only, it could not be dry. Don’t you think he was very clever? Well, he considered the inhabited portion of earth as flat, consisting of the top face of a cylinder, whose thickness is one- third of its diameter. He claimed that earth was supported by nothing, and remained constant in its place because it is equidistant from all other things.
Anaximanderclaimed that everything in the universe was originated from “Apeiron”. Apeiron is an endless, unlimited primordial mass. Eternal motion, along with the “apeiron”, was the originating cause of the universe according to Anaximander. He believed that the world was not eternal and it would be destroyed back into the “apeiron”, from which new worlds would be born.
He also gave idea about the revenge of nature. He said that all existing things must pay penalty and retribution to one another for their injustice according to the nature of time. He gave ideas about the sun and the moon also. He suspected that the sun and the moon are hollow rings filled with fire and their disks were vents. We could see the sun when the vents were open and could see the moon when the vents were close. To be honest he was one of the first Greek Philosophers who has prompt the idea of Cosmology Definition.
Anaximenes, the first Greek to distinguish clearly between planets and stars, considered air as the first principlal. He said that air was the source of everything. He claimed that everything was air, everything is air at a different degree of ddensity. He considered the earth as a broad disk, floating on the surrounding air. According to him, the sun and stars were formed by the same processes of condensation and rarefaction of air.
He claimed that thunder and lightning result from wind breaking out of clouds. The rays of the sun falling on clouds caused the rainbows. He said that earthquakes were caused by the cracking of the earth.
Empedocles was another pre- Socratic Greek philosopher from Akragas. He was known as the originator of the cosmogenic theory of four classical elements. Four classical elements were fire, water, air and earth. According to him, everything in the universe including human body, was composed of the four elements in different proportions.
Sometimes we say that this man is like water. What do we mean by this statement? Really is he like water! Actually no. By this statement, we mean that this man is as simple as water. There was a time when the pure elements and the two powers co- existed. The two powers are love and strife. According to him, interplay of four elements and two forces was cosmology.
It’s time to about Heraclitus. He was a pre- Socratic Greek philosopher from Ephesus. According to Heraclitus, the world is consisting of a systemic interchange of elements. It is an ongoing process governed by a law of perpetual change. He was not much concerned with the mechanics of the universe. He called the entire cosmos “an ever-living fire.” He claimed that fire changed into water, and then into earth, and earth changed into water and then into fire.
According to Heraclitus, the universe is in a symmetrical cycle of expansion and contraction. He said that the world existed was a coherent system in which a change in one direction was ultimately balanced by a parallel change in another. Do you know that he gave ideas about the sun and the moon? He believed that the sun is a giant bowl orbiting the earth. He also believed that the bowl of the moon spined on an axis as it orbited the earth.
These are some More article about cosmology and pre- Socratic philosophers.
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